A way to port Quake 2 on Chromebook (No android support required) or Java based phone (e.g Nokia, LG)?
I see the only one way to do that "Get Quake 2 source code and translate it to the Java code".
Ah, that reminds me that there is a project that ported Quake 2 to Java. Jake2 website and code.
If you're talking about pre-smartphone devices (Symbian and lower) they are not going to be able to run any version of Quake 2.